Imagen de portada

Technical examination of ancient south american metals

David A. Scott

Resumen


Este artículo presenta algunos estudios metalúrgicos y técnicos de objetos procedentes de Colombia, Perú y Argentina. Estos artefactos son representantes fascinantes de tradiciones culturales dispares y de diferentes prácticas metalúrgicas de la época prehispánica. El primer grupo de objetos que se discuten incluye fragmentos de artefactos de cobre y de tumbaga de Colombia, procedentes de varias regiones como Nariño, Sinú y Muisca. Luego se analizan algunos objetos tecnológicamente importantes anque muy diferentes, de oro, platino y plata de las áreas culturales peruanas Recuay y Huari. Finalmente se presenta el estudio de una placa de bronce de la cultura La Aguada de Argentina o Bolivia.

Palabras clave


Metalurgia precolombina; Prácticas metalúrgicas; cobre; tumbaga

Texto completo:

PDF

Referencias


BRAY, W. 1978. The Gold of El Dorado. Catalogue of the London Exhibition of Colombian Goldwork: Royal Academy 1978-1979. Londres: Time Books.

BRAY, W. 1993. Techniques of Gilding and Surface-enrichment in pre-Hispanic American Metallurgy. In: Metal Plating and Patination: Cultural, Technical and Historícal Developments 182-192, Susan La Niece and Pau l Craddock (Eds.) ButteiWorth-Heincmann. Oxford.

BUSHNELL, G.H.S. 1951. The Archaeology of the Santa Elena Peninsula in Southwest Ecuador. Cambridge: Cambridge Universiry Press.

CHRISTENSEN, R.T. 1954. A Recent Excavation in Southern Coastal Ecuador Bulletin of the University Archaeology Society S: 30-54. Brigham Young University. Utah.

GRIEDER, T. 1978. The Art and Archaeology of Pashash. University of Texas Press. Austin and London.

FESTER, G. A. 1962. Copper and copper alloys in ancient Argentina. Chymia: Annual Studies in the History of Chemistry 8 : 21-31. University of Pennsylvania Press. Philadelphia.

GONZALEZ, A R. 1975. Pre-Columbian Metallurgy of Northwest Argentina: historical development and cultural process. In Pre-Columbían Metallurgy of South America 133- 203. (Ed. E. P. Benson). Washington D. C : Harvard University Press.

HANCOCK, R. G. V., PAVLISH, L. A., FARQUHA.R, R. M., SALLOUM, R., FOX, W. A., AND WILSON, G. C. 1991. Distinguishing European trade copper and North-Eastern North American native copper: Archaeometry 33 : 69-86.

HOWE, E. G. ANO PETERSEN, U. 1994. Silver and lead in the late prehistory of the Mantaro Valley, Peru. In: Archaeometry of pre-Columbían Sites and Artifacts. 183-198. (Ed. D. A Scott a.nd P. Meyers). Getty Conservation lnstitute. Los Angeles.

LECHTMAN, H. 1996. Arsenic bronze: Dirty copper or chosen alloy? A view from the Americas.Joumal of Field Archaeology 23 : 477-514.

MCDONALD, D. 1959. The Platinum of New Granada: Mining and Metallurgy in the Spanish Colonial Empire. Platínum Metals Review 3: 140-5.

MADDIN, R., WHEELER, T. S., AND MUHLY, J. D. 1980. Distinguishing artifacts made of native copper.JoumaJ of Archaeological Science 7 : 2121-225.

MERKEL, J. E, SERUYA, A I., GRIFFITHS, D., AND SHIMADA, l. 1995. Metallography and microanalysis of precious metal objects from the Middle Sicán elite tombs at Batan Grande, Peru. In: Materials lssues in Art and Archaeology IV 105-126. J.R. Druzik, I. Freeswne a.nd P. Vandiver (ed). Pittsburgh : Materials Research Sociery.

MERTIE, J.B. Jr. 1969. Economic Geology of the Platinum Metals. United States Geological Survey: Professional paper no.630.

MONROY, H. G. 1978. Platino. In: Recursos minerales de Colombia : 429-440. R A. Carmona (Ed). Bogotá: Publicaciones geológicas especiales del lngeominas. Ministerio de Minas y Energía.

PLAZAS DE NIETO, C. 1979. Orfebrería prehispánica del Altiplano Nariñiense. Revista Colombiana de Antropología XXI : 197-244.

PLAZAS DE NIETO, C. y A.M. FALCHETTI DE SÁENZ. 1978. El Dorado: Colombian Gold. Australian Art Exhibitions. Sydney.

SAVILLE, M. H. 1907-1910. The Antiquities of Manabi, Ecuador: Contributions to South American Archaeology. The George C. Heye Expedition. New York.

SCOTT, D. A. 1980. Cuentas de collar elaboradas en aleación de cobre procedentes de Nariño, Colombia [Translation Ana Helena Alfonso y Ana Maria Falchetti de Sáenz]. En Boletín Museo del Oro, Año 3: 18-29. Bogotá

SCOTT, D. A. 1 982. Pre-Columbian Metallurgy: Studies of some gold and platinum artefacts. Ph.D. Dissertation. University College London. Institute of Archaeology. [Unpublished].

SCOTT D. A. 1986a. Gold alloy silver alloy coatings over copper: an examination of some artifacts from Ecuador and Colombia. In Archaeometry, 28: 33-50.

SCOTT, D. A. 1986b. Fusion gilding and foil gilding jn pre-Hispanic Colombia and Ecuador. In: Metalurgia de América precolombina : 283-325, C. Plazas (Ed.). Bogotá: Banco de la República.

SCOTT, D. A. and W. BRAY, 1994. Pre-Hispanic platinum alloys: their composition and use in Ecuador and Colombia. In: Archaeometry of Pre-Columbian Sites and Artefacts : 285-322, D. A. Scott a.nd P Meyers (Ed.). The Getty Conservation lnstitute. Los Angeles.

SCOTT, D. A. 1996. Technical study of a ceremonial Sican tumi figurine. Archaeometry, 38 : 305-3 11.

VOCE, E. 1948. Ancient Mining and Metallurgy Group of the Royal Anthropological Institute: Preliminary Report, Part II: Notes on some analyses of native copper and ancient artifacts. Man (Oid Series)34 : 19-21.

WAYMAN, M. L., R. R. SMITH, C.G.HICKEY, M.J.M. DUKE, 1985 The analysis of copper artifacts of the copper Inuit. JournaJ of Archaeological Science 12 : 367-375.

UBELAKER, D. H. 198 1. The Ayalan Cemetery: a Late lntegration Period Burial Site on the South Coast of Ecuador. Smithsonian Cont.ributions to Anthropology 29. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.